Friday, August 30, 2019
Differences between Spearman and Gardner Essay
Edward SpearmanÃ¢â¬â¢s name is almost synonymous with general intelligence, or Ã¢â¬Å"gÃ¢â¬ for short. He invented the first form of factor analysis, and proposed a two-factor theory of intelligence. He had sort of a math formula that said every activity involves a general factor plus a specific factor. (G + S). From these theories, he said that people who do well on intelligence tests also do well on a variety of intellectual tasks. Ã¢â¬Å"Vocabulary and mathematical and spatial abilitiesÃ¢â¬ . (Wilderdom, 2003). So for example of Ã¢â¬Å"gÃ¢â¬ , Spearman would theorize that people who score well on a verbal test have a lot of intelligence, but they are affected by their abilities to perform verbal tasks. In laments terms, if you scored well on a verbal test, you studied and have the brain capacity to understand and comprehend the material. Howard Gardner on the other hand has a different point of view on intelligence. Instead of one main intelligence to focus on, he has seven. Ã¢â¬Å"Verbal, Mathematical, Musical, Spatial, Kinesthetic, Interpersonal, and intrapersonal functioningÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ (Wilderdom, 2003). While these are all forms of intelligence, they function separately he argues. Gardner goes a different route than Spearman basing he theories on biological facts. Ã¢â¬Å"Premise 1: If it can be found that certain brain parts can distinctively map with certain cognitive functioning, then that cognitive functioning can be isolated as one candidate of multiple intelligences. Premise 2: Now it has been found that certain brain parts do distinctively map with certain cognitive functioning, as evidenced by certain brain damage leading to loss of certain cognitive functionÃ¢â¬ (Washington U, 2002). These theories give a basis for multiple intelligences. Biologically, Gardner determines that the brain is the major player in the equation. For example; if a person was physicallyÃ handicapped, he determined that the particular part of the person brain that controlled motor functions was damaged. The differences between the two psychologistÃ¢â¬â¢s theories are basically the same, but explained differently. SpearmanÃ¢â¬â¢s theories are narrow focusing on one general type of intelligence, G and reaction time. GardnerÃ¢â¬â¢s theories are essentially the same but broader focusing on multiple intelligences. Point here is that Gardner doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe that one intelligence can be sufficient to determine intelligence. As for overall use of these theories, SpearmanÃ¢â¬â¢s theory has more evidence that it works compared to GardnerÃ¢â¬â¢s theory. The proof conquers that there is a connection between someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s IQ and simple everyday tasks. The only place where SpearmanÃ¢â¬â¢s theory is suspect is that it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t account for all people. Example; if you gave a poor child an intelligence test, they would probably score poorly thus be deemed to have a below average intelligence. However, the child probably knows how to do basic math to survive and get by, consequently, it canÃ¢â¬â¢t take into account different talents that certain individuals have. Gardner also has the same critiques with his theory. A lot of people donÃ¢â¬â¢t prefer this method because it is too excessive and has too many components to gauge and measure. His theory has a very casual explanation, but due to the variety of different components to the theory, itÃ¢â¬â¢s difficult to pinpoint the exact cause and effect of a situation, and since no one has accurately figured out the complexities and diagramed an accurate depiction of the brain, I would have to call the theory hypothetical. References Spearman Ã¢â¬Å"gÃ¢â¬ , (2003). Retrieved on June 26th 2004, from, http://www.wilderdom.com/personality/L1-5KeyPlayers.html. Han S. Palik, One intelligence or many? (2002). Retrieved on June 25th 2004, from http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/paik.html.
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